Today, we are going to explore an often-overlooked but crucial aspect of training: breathing.
While breathing seems like the most natural thing in the world, it can become a source of confusion when it comes to fitness training. Many people, particularly beginners, often wonder about the correct breathing technique during exercise. When should one exhale or inhale? Does the type of workout affect the breathing pattern? Is there a 'right' way to breathe?
Before we delve into the specifics of breathing during exercise, it's important to understand the basic physiology of breathing. Breathing is a semi-automatic process—something that happens without us consciously controlling it, though we can control it when we wish to. This process is controlled by the diaphragm, a muscle that sits between the abdomen and the lungs. As the diaphragm contracts, air is drawn into the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, the air is expelled from the lungs.
When we exercise, we can manipulate our breath to enhance our performance. By increasing pressure in our abdomen through specific breathing techniques, we can increase the stability of our core. A more stable core enables us to create more power, which means we can train harder, build more muscle, and reduce our risk of injury.
Now that we understand the physiology of breathing let's examine how this applies to fitness training. The most basic breathing technique involves inhaling during the eccentric phase of the movement (when you're lowering the weight) and exhaling during the concentric phase of the movement (when you're pushing or lifting the weight). This technique allows us to use our breath to generate more force and thus improve our performance.
However, this doesn't always apply across all exercises or sports. For instance, powerlifters often take a big breath before they squat, hold their breath as they lower into the squat (eccentric phase), and then exhale as they stand (concentric phase). This technique, known as the Valsalva maneuver, increases intra-abdominal pressure and provides greater core stability and safety when lifting heavy weights.
While understanding the science behind these techniques is important, applying them can sometimes complicate the exercise, especially for beginners. Introducing conscious breath control can become an additional task to focus on, potentially overwhelming an individual who is still mastering the basic movement.
Moreover, people naturally learn how to breathe efficiently during exercise as they increase the intensity or load of their workouts. This progression typically happens instinctively; as you lift heavier, your body adjusts its breathing pattern to accommodate the increased demand. Therefore, some trainers suggest that, unless there's a specific reason to modify an individual's breathing pattern, it may be best to allow it to occur naturally.
In conclusion, while breathing is a complex aspect of fitness, it doesn't have to be a source of confusion or concern. Start by understanding the basics, and then learn to listen to your body. Pay attention to how you breathe during different exercises and different phases of each exercise. By doing so, you can ensure that your breathing works for you, rather than against you, in your journey to become stronger and fitter.